In countries with low malnutrition, vitamin C deficiency may occur as part of general malnutrition, but severe deficiency (causing scurvy) is rare. Symptoms include fatigue, depression, and abnormalities of the connective tissue (eg, gingivitis, petechiae, rash, internal bleeding, poor healing). In babies and children, the bones can be damaged. The diagnosis is usually clinical. The treatment is oral vitamin C.
Vitamin C participates in the synthesis of collagen, carnitine, hormones and amino acids.
It is important for the health of the bones and blood vessels and the healing of wounds that make recovery from burns. Vitamin C is also an antioxidant, supports the immune system, and helps absorb iron (see table of sources, functions, and effects of vitamins). Food sources of vitamin C include citrus fruits, tomatoes, potatoes, broccoli, strawberries and peppers. (See also definition of vitamins.)
Severe vitamin C deficiency leads to scurvy, a disorder of hemorrhagic manifestations manifested in the abnormal appearance of osteoid and dentin. Etiology of vitamin C deficiency
In adults, vitamin C deficiency is the most common cause
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The need for dietary vitamin C increases with febrile illness, inflammatory disease (especially diarrheal illness), achlorhydria, smoking, hyperthyroidism, iron deficiency, cold or heat, surgery, heat and protein deficiency. Heat (e.g. process sterilization, food) can destroy some of the vitamin C in food.
Pathophysiology of Vitamin C deficiency
When vitamin C is lacking, the formation of intercellular cement in the connective tissue, bone and dentin is not good, resulting in weak capillaries and subsequent bleeding and defects in the bone and related organs.
The structure of the bone structure is damaged, which in children causes bone damage and unhealthy bones. Fibrous tissue develops between the diaphysis and epiphysis, and the costochondral cost increases. Pieces of tightly packed cartilage are embedded in fibrous tissue. Subperiosteal bleeding, sometimes due to small fractures, can occur in children or adults.
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Symptoms and Signs of Vitamin C Deficiency
In adults, symptoms of vitamin C deficiency develop after weeks or months of vitamin C deficiency. Fatigue, weakness, irritability, weight loss, and vague myalgias and arthralgias may develop early.
Symptoms of scurvy (related to the associated skin defects) develop after a few months of deficiency. Follicular hyperkeratosis, ingrown hairs, and perifollicular hemorrhages may develop. The skin can be swollen, purple, spongy and crumbly; they bleed easily if there is no severe deficiency. Eventually, the teeth loosen and vibrate. A second disease can develop. Wounds heal well and tear quickly, indirect bleeding may occur, especially in the form of skin ecchymoses of the lower extremities or bulbar conjunctival bleeding.
Other signs and symptoms include femoral neuropathy due to bleeding in the femoral sheath (which can mimic deep vein thrombosis), low back edema, and painful bleeding or swelling in the joint. . In infants, symptoms include restlessness, pain during movement, anorexia, and decreased growth. In infants and children, abnormal bone formation and bleeding and anemia may occur. Diagnosis of vitamin C deficiency
It is Usually Clinical (Based on Skin or Gingival Signs and Risk Factors)
Vitamin C deficiency is usually diagnosed clinically in a patient with skin or gingival signs that are at risk for vitamin C deficiency. Laboratory confirmation can be obtained. A complete blood count is done, often detecting anemia. Blood, clotting and prothrombin time are normal. A skeletal X-ray can help diagnose scurvy in children (but not adults). The changes are evident at the end of the long bones, especially at the knees. The first change is atrophy.
Loss of trabeculae gives a ground glass appearance. Cortex is red. A line of calcified and irregular cartilage (Fraenkel’s white line) can be seen at the level of the metaphysis. An area of small or linear fissures close to the linea alba is seen only as a triangular spot on the outer side of the bone but is defined. The epiphysis can be compressed. Treatment of subperiosteal hemorrhages can elevate and stretch the periosteum.
Laboratory research, which requires checking blood ascorbic acid, is sometimes done in educational institutions. Levels <0.6 mg/dL (<34 mcmol/L) are considered mild; Levels <0.2 mg/dL (<11 mcmol/L) indicate vitamin C deficiency. Measurement of ascorbic acid levels in white blood cells and the platelet layer of centrifuged blood is not widely available or standardized. Rules Not to Observe About Football Betting
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